These are university grading and academic standards which apply to all academic courses and programs offered at Cal State East Bay, including, but not limited to, courses offered in self-support, state-support or special sessions.
Policies & Procedures
University Grading Policy
It is an integral part of the teaching responsibility of the faculty to provide careful evaluation and timely assignment of an appropriate grade to each enrolled student. There is a presumption that grades assigned are correct. It is the responsibility of anyone appealing an assigned grade to demonstrate otherwise. In the absence of compelling reasons, such as instructor or clerical error, prejudice, or capriciousness, the grade determined by the instructor of record will be considered final.
For purposes of correcting an error, an instructor may change a grade with approval of his/her department chair and college dean. No grade may be changed once graduation has been recorded unless an error has been made, in which case students have one term after their degree has been awarded to dispute the grade and have it corrected, or if a Grade Appeal petition has resulted in a grade change. The administrative symbol for withdrawal cannot be assigned by a faculty member.
See the Registration & Enrollment chapter for the description of withdrawal policies and procedures.
Appealing an Inappropriate Grade
If you question the grade you received in a course, attempt to resolve the problem with your instructor. If you are not satisfied, discuss the issue with the chair of the department in which the course is offered. If the issue is not resolved, see the dean or associate dean of the college in which the course is offered. If all previous actions fail, contact the Presidential Appointee to the Grade Appeal and Academic Grievance Committee by calling 510-885-3716 (the Academic Programs and Graduate Studies Office). If you are a candidate for a degree, notify your graduation evaluator that a question is pending resolution. Remember, once your degree has been posted, no grade changes will be recorded.
Grade Appeal and Academic Grievance Committee
This is your recourse to resolve serious cases of alleged academic unfairness. After every effort by all parties to resolve the dispute has been ineffective, discuss your case with the President’s appointee to the Grade Appeal Committee. The Presidential Appointee will assist you in exhausting all normal channels and, if necessary, in filing a Petition (see PDF link below) for a Grade Appeal Hearing. Submit your Petition and supporting documentation to the Academic Programs and Graduate Studies Office (Student Services and Administration Building). The Grade Appeal Committee will review your documentation and the response(s) filed by the other parties involved in the dispute. If the committee finds possible grounds for a grievance, a Hearing Panel will be convened to hear the case. Under normal circumstances, you must file your Petition before the end of the quarter following the quarter in which the alleged incident took place.
The Grade Appeal Committee is empowered to change a grade in accordance with the Grade Appeal Document and to assign a grade in cases where the instructor may have assigned an unfair academic grade. The Grade Appeal Committee is authorized to change a grade only after it has conducted a proper review of the case.
Grade Appeal Petition Form
For additional information see the Student Conduct, Rights & Responsibilities chapter.
More information is available from the Office of Academic Programs and Graduate Studies (Student Services and Administration Building; Tel. 510-885-3716)
Final Examination Policy
The student can expect the instructors to provide comprehensive course requirement information for each course at the beginning of the quarter. This will include the work that is expected of the student and the basis on which the student will be evaluated. Most courses have graded assignments throughout the quarter and a final examination or paper. The university’s policy states that final examinations must be given only at the times published in the MyCSUEB. The purpose of this policy is to ensure fairness for all students. Exceptions are, therefore, rare and must be approved in writing by the department chair. A student should contact the department chair or college dean if they believe this policy is not being followed. If the student is in a course which has a separate laboratory, activity or discussion section, the instructor is permitted to give a separate final examination (but only for that section) during the last regularly scheduled meeting of the section.
Availability of Grades after Finals
Grades for the current quarter are available online after faculty submit their official grade rosters and grades are official. To check grades and academic standing visit MyCSUEB at: https://my.csueastbay.edu
Grade Forgiveness & Course Repetition
Grade Forgiveness is the process that matriculated students seeking a bachelor’s degree follow, under limited circumstances, to remove the punitive effect of past academic failures. (A matriculated student is regularly enrolled after being admitted to the university.)
There are two ways to achieve Grade Forgiveness, Repetition of a Course and Forgiveness of Previous Term(s). Please contact the Department of General Education (SSA Building, Room 1500, 510-885-1941) for information regarding Grade Forgiveness and Repetition of Courses.
Repetition of a Course
You may repeat a course in which you have earned a grade of C-, D+, D, F, WU, NC, or IC for grade forgiveness two times, which means your earlier attempt(s) is ignored in GPA calculations, but not removed from your record, subject to the following conditions:
- Petitioning for grad forgiveness
- GE course equivalencies
Course Equivalencies For Purposes of Grade Forgiveness
Certain General Education courses are considered equivalent for the purposes of grade forgiveness. Therefore, students will receive credit for only one course in each of the following groups:
BIOL 1000 - Basic Concepts in BiologyPreview
BIOL 1001 - Introduction to BiologyPreview
BIOL 1005 - How Things Work: The Human BodyPreview
BIOL 1007 - Human BiologyPreview
BIOL 2010 - Human Physiology and Anatomy IPreview
BIOL 2011 - Anatomy and Physiology IPreview
BIOL 2020 - Human Physiology and Anatomy IIPreview
BIOL 2021 - Anatomy and Physiology IIPreview
CHEM 1601 - Basic Chemistry for the Health SciencesPreview
CHEM 1605 - Basic Chemistry for Healthier LivingPreview
CHEM 1610 - Survey of Basic Chemistry for Health SciencesPreview
CHEM 1615 - Survey of Basic Chemistry for Healthier LivingPreview
DANC 1201 - Dance for All Bodies and AbilitiesPreview
DANC 1202 - World Dance: Oral Traditions and the StagePreview
DANC 1203 - Exploring the Creative and SpiritualPreview
ENSC 2800 - Environmental Problems of CaliforniaPreview
ENSC 2801 - Global Environmental ProblemsPreview
ENSC 2802 - Global Environmental IssuesPreview
ENVT 2000 - Introduction to Environmental StudiesPreview
ENVT 2001 - Environmental PerspectivesPreview
GEOL 1001 - Introduction to the Earth SciencesPreview
GEOL 1003 - How Earth Systems WorkPreview
GEOL 1005 - Earth SciencePreview
GEOL 1006 - Earth Systems and EnergyPreview
GEOL 2300 - Natural DisastersPreview
GEOL 2301 - Natural HazardsPreview
HIST 1014 - World Civilizations IPreview
HIST 1017 - Ancient World CivilizationsPreview
KIN 1625 - Nutrition and PerformancePreview
KIN 1626 - Nutrition and Performance for Bodies at PlayPreview
LIBY 1210 - Introduction to Information LiteracyPreview
LIBY 1551 - Information Skills in the Electronic AgePreview
PHIL 1102 - Issues in Environmental EthicsPreview
PHIL 1103 - Science, Ethics, and TechnologyPreview
PHIL 1104 - The Philosophy of Environmental Science and PolicyPreview
PHYS 1500 - How Things WorkPreview
PHYS 1700 - Elementary PhysicsPreview
PSYC 1000 - General PsychologyPreview
PSYC 1001 - General Psychology and SocietyPreview
PSYC 1005 - General Psychology for Healthier LivingPreview
SOC 1000 - Introduction to SociologyPreview
SOC 1002 - Introduction to Sociology of Individual and SocietyPreview
STAT 1000 - Elements of Probability and StatisticsPreview
STAT 2010 - Elements of Statistics for Business and Economics
Grade Forgiveness of Previous Term(s)
Under the most extenuating circumstances, you can petition to exclude from degree requirements and GPA computations up to three quarters (or up to two semesters) of coursework taken at any institution. To have your petition approved, you must meet certain conditions and follow the process described below.
Approval of your petition requires satisfaction of all the following conditions:
- the coursework to be excluded does not represent your scholastic ability, and that this substandard performance was due to an extenuating circumstance;
- you would be compelled to complete additional courses or enroll in additional quarters to achieve your baccalaureate degree if your petition is not approved;
- five years have elapsed since the most recent coursework to be excluded was completed
- you completed at least 22 units at Cal State East Bay since the last term to be disregarded, with a 3.0 GPA, 45 units with a 2.5 GPA, or 67 units with a 2.0 GPA.
You must complete the following steps:
- complete your portion of the “Petition for Forgiveness of Previous Term”
- obtain your major advisor’s approval on the petition
- file the petition in the Student Information Lobby. If you are eligible, the Appeals Coordinator certifies that you meet the above conditions, attaches a copy of your academic record, and forwards the package to the Grade Forgiveness committee in the Provost’s Office. The committee acts upon all petitions by majority vote.
If the Appeals Coordinator determines you do not meet the conditions, you are notified and no action is taken.
Grade Forgiveness Policy at Cal State East Bay
To request grade forgiveness, you must file a “Petition for Grade Forgiveness” with the General Education Office, Room 1500, Student Services and Administration Building, if:
- the course prefix and/or number has changed, or the course is Independent Study.
- your first attempt was at another accredited post-secondary institution.
You pick up the petition in the department offering the course at Cal State East Bay. The chair of the department must certify that the courses are equivalent. (This means the course content is substantially identical. It does not mean merely that the courses meet the same requirement.) After the petition has been approved by the chair of the department offering the course, you must file it with the GE Director in the GE Office before the end of the Add/Drop period for that quarter. The GE Director must then approve your petition. A denied petition is promptly mailed to you by the GE Office. An approved petition is sent to the Office of the Registrar. The previous attempt will be excluded from your GPA calculations after the end of the quarter in which you repeat the course and may not be reflected in that quarter’s grade report.
Note: The CSU system normally forbids retroactive Grade Forgiveness. File your petition before reregistering for the course to give yourself time to adjust your program if your petition is denied.
There are unit limit on grade forgiveness. Students are normally limited to 42 units, 24 of which will be forgiven and the additional 18 will be averaged.
- You can only receive grade forgiveness for 24 units of coursework.
- You may repeat an additional 18 units of coursework for grade averaging. The quality hours and quality points of the repeated courses will be averaged, while the units earned for these subsequent attempts will not be counted.
- After completing the 42 units of grade forgiveness and grade averaging, students who require additional units may petition through their advisor (AACE, [EOP or EXCEL if member of program], GE, major). If the petition is approved, the GE Office will also decide if the additional units will be given grade forgiveness or grade averaging.
Note: You should not file a “Petition for Grade Forgiveness” if the original grade is still an “I.” You cannot get Grade Forgiveness because the “I” does not affect your GPA. If the grade has been changed to an “IC,” Grade Forgiveness is possible.
Grade Forgiveness Policies of Other Institutions
Cal State East Bay honors the Grade Forgiveness policies of other institutions as stated on their transcripts.
Note: Cal State East Bay honors the exclusion policies of the originating institution. Each term excluded by another institution reduces by one the number of terms that Cal State East Bay will consider for exclusion.
When Grade Forgiveness is Not Possible
Grade Forgiveness is not possible in the following circumstances (except with approved petition):
You cannot repeat any one course for Grade Forgiveness, more than twice. (Some departments may restrict grade forgiveness to only one repeat.) If you do, the quality hours and quality points of all subsequent repeats will be averaged, while the units earned for these subsequent attempts will not be counted. These units will be counted as part of the 18-unit limit described in 2, above.
You cannot receive Grade Forgiveness for a grade of “C” (2.0) or better. If you do repeat a class in which your original grade was a “C” or higher, the quality hours and quality points of all attempts will be used to calculate your grade point average, while only the units earned for the first attempt will be counted. These units will be counted as part of the 18-unit limit described in 2, above.
Grade Forgiveness cannot be approved for any grade assigned as a result of academic dishonesty.
If the original grade(s) was assigned at Cal State East Bay, Grade Forgiveness by repeating a course at another institution is normally not possible. (Exceptions can be made for disqualified students who file an approved petition prior to repeating the course elsewhere, but only to the extent necessary for their readmission.) Disqualified students repeating courses through Open University at CSUEB, only to the extent necessary for their readmission, do not need to file a petition.
Undergraduate Academic Honors
In the Grading & Academic Standards chapter, the Dean’s and Honors Lists (the annual academic honors recognition) are discussed. Cal State East Bay also recognizes undergraduate students at graduation for consistently high scholarship through their entire academic careers, which includes coursework they may have transferred in from other institutions. If you graduate from Cal State East Bay during any quarter covered by this catalog, you will qualify for Graduation with Honors if your academic record meets the following criteria.
- To qualify for any category of honors, you must have a minimum cumulative and Cal State East Bay grade point average of 3.65, and
- You must have completed at least 60 quarter units of coursework in residence (as defined in the university catalog) at Cal State East Bay.
- You will qualify for one of these categories of honors at graduation on the basis of the following grade point average in all college work:
- 3.85-4.00 summa cum laude (highest honors);
- 3.75-3.84 magna cum laude (high honors);
- 3.65-3.74 cum laude (honors)
The GPA is officially calculated at the time you have completed your graduation requirements. Therefore, graduation with honors is governed by the catalog in effect at the time of your graduation. The honors designation will be noted on your diploma and official transcript. The conditions noted above apply equally to second-baccalaureate degree candidates. Post-baccalaureate and graduate students are not eligible for university honors.
Qualifying for Dean’s and Honors Lists
Students who achieve academic distinction in any academic quarter, as evidenced by a grade point average of 3.80 or higher in 12 units or more, in addition to any units graded CR/NC, will be included on the Dean’s List for that quarter. Students with a grade point average in the range of 3.60-3.79 will be included on the Honor’s List for that quarter. Recognition of these honors will be posted to the student transcript for each quarter that the student is on the list.
Grade Point Average (GPA)
The student’s grade point average (GPA) is calculated by dividing the total number of quality hours (units attempted, excluding CR/NC courses) into the number of grade (quality) points earned. If they repeat a course required in the major, their department has the discretion, under specific circumstances, not to include an earlier attempt in the GPA calculation. The approval not to include the earlier attempt in the student’s degree program must be submitted by their department to the Office of the Registrar. This may be done at any time while a student is enrolled in the degree program, but may not be done after they have been awarded their degree.
Also see Glossary of Terms & Definitions for more information on grade point average and its significance.
Grading Honors Courses for Freshmen
Grades earned in up to eight semester courses designated as honors courses in approved subjects (taken in the last two years of high school), receive additional points in grade point average calculations. Each unit of “A” in approved courses will receive a total of 5 points; “B,” 4 points; “C,” 3 points; “D,” 1 point; and none for “F” grades. (Up to two 11th grade IB, AP, or honors courses with 11th or 12th grade course content taken in 10th grade may also receive bonus points.)
Academic Grading Symbols for Undergraduate Courses
Academic Grading Symbols
||Grade (Quality) Points Earned
“A-F” Grading Pattern
Courses required for your major in your major department are taken in this pattern. Specific department exemptions are noted in the course description. Faculty use of “+” or “-” is optional.
Credit/No Credit and A/B/C/No Credit Grading Patterns (CR/NC and A/B/C/NC)
You may enroll in up to 60 units in credit/no credit patterns as an undergraduate. There are two credit/no credit patterns: (1) “CR/NC,” and (2) “A/B/C/NC.” Some courses are only offered in the “CR/NC” or “A/B/C/NC” patterns. You can select the “CR/NC” pattern for most other courses subject to certain restrictions. You can choose the “CR/NC” pattern during Registration until the end of the Add/Drop period. No changes to, or from, the credit/no credit pattern are permitted after the Add/Drop period. There are no exceptions to this rule. No course in your major department, regardless of course prefix, may be taken “CR/NC,” unless that is the only grading pattern in the course.
Units that you earn in courses taken under these grading patterns will apply to your degree requirements as long as they are not remedial courses (courses numbered 0800 - 0999). “CR” signifies you mastered the material at the level of “C-” or higher. “NC” signifies a work level of “D+” or lower. Faculty use of “+” or “-” is optional.
Administrative Grading Symbols
Administrative Grading Symbols
|Administrative Grading Symbols
||Grade (Quality) Points Earned
||Report in Progress
Report in Progress (RP)
The symbol “RP,” Report in Progress, is used in connection with courses that extend beyond an academic term. It indicates that work is in progress, but that a final grade cannot be assigned until additional work is completed. The work is to be completed within one year, except in the case of graduate theses or dissertation. A graduate thesis or dissertation must be completed and approved within five years of the student’s initial enrollment in a thesis or dissertation course. If the work is not completed within the established time limit (one year, and for graduate theses and dissertation, five years), the “RP” grade will be changed to an “F” or “NC,” depending on the grading pattern of the course.
The symbol “I”, Incomplete (Authorized), indicates that (1) a discrete portion of the required coursework has not been completed and evaluated in the prescribed time period due to unforeseen, but fully justified, reasons, (2) attending a future offering of the class is not required to complete the work, and (3) the instructor believes it likely that the student will earn credit for the course upon completion of that work. Students who are currently failing a course are not eligible for an Incomplete. It is the student’s responsibility to bring pertinent information to the attention of the instructor and to determine from the instructor the remaining course requirements that must be satisfied to remove the Incomplete. A final grade is assigned when the work agreed upon has been completed and evaluated. The instructor will specify the work needed for completion which can be viewed in MyCSUEB.
An “I” must normally be made up within one calendar year immediately following the end of the term during which it was assigned. This limitation prevails whether or not the student maintains continuous enrollment. Students may not repeat a course in which they currently have an incomplete grade.
When the required work has been completed and evaluated, the instructor will submit a change of grade form and the academic grade will be recorded. If students do not complete the work within the allowed time limit, the grade will be recorded as an “IC” (Incomplete Charged).
Incomplete Charged (IC)
The symbol “IC,” Incomplete Charged, is used if the student received an authorized incomplete (“I”), but did not complete the required coursework within the allowed time limit, and the original grading pattern of the course was “A-F.” The “IC” replaces the “I” and is counted as a failing grade for computing grade point average. Students may be able to receive up to two one-quarter extensions from the instructor. These extensions are for cause and must be approved by both the instructor and department chair. (Examples of cause include military service, serious health or personal problems, or instructor’s leave of absence.) If students want credit for a course after an “I” has been converted to an “IC,” they must re-register and pass the course.
Students can graduate with an “I” grade on their record if the course is not necessary for graduation requirements. No grade may be changed once the degree has been awarded.
Report Delayed (RD)
Students will be assigned this administrative grade for a course if the instructor notifies the Office of the Registrar that grade reports have been delayed by circumstances beyond his or her control. An example is the illness of the instructor at the end of the quarter. The instructor will replace the “RD” grade with an academic grade as soon as possible. If the instructor fails to replace it with an academic grade by the end of the following term, the grade “RD” will be converted to a “WU” or an “NC” depending on your grading pattern.
This administrative grade indicates that the student was permitted to withdraw from a course after the end of the Add/Drop period with the approval of the instructor and department chair. The requests and approvals shall state the reasons for withdrawal. This grade does not reflect the quality of performance and is not used in calculating grade point average. The instructor is urged to provide the student with a mechanism to evaluate their progress in the course during the first two weeks so that they can make an informed decision regarding their continued enrollment before the beginning of the withdrawal period.
Undergraduate students may withdraw from no more than 28 quarter units in the undergraduate career. Only withdrawals recorded in terms beginning with Fall 2009 are counted. Open University units are counted toward the maximum units. Students who have reached the limit on withdrawals may file an academic petition to allow additional withdrawals from courses. No limitations are placed on withdrawals by post-baccalaureate students taking classes in a post-baccalaureate career.
Withdrawal after the seventh week is normally not permitted. If students have attended the class, done the work, and have a valid reason for failing to complete the course, their instructor should normally assign the “I,” Incomplete (Authorized) grade.
Withdrawal from a class after the seventh week requires a petition including verification of the reason by an impartial third party, written on letterhead, and signature of the instructor, department chair, and college dean. The requirements for withdrawal from the university from the third through the seventh weeks must also be fulfilled. Petitions are then reviewed by the Registration and Records Appeals Committee, approval is not automatic.
Students may not withdraw if they have taken the final examination or completed all course requirements.
If students do not attend class and do not have an approved withdrawal petition, they will receive a failing grade of “WU” or “NC,” depending on the grading pattern selected for the course.
Details on the withdrawal process are documented in the Registration & Enrollment chapter.
Withdrawal Unauthorized (WU)
This administrative grade indicates that students enrolled in a course, but did not withdraw from the course and also failed to complete course requirements. It is used when, in the opinion of the instructor, completed assignments or course activities, or both, were insufficient to make normal evaluation of academic performance possible. The “WU” is calculated in the grade point average as an “F” grade.
Students may take courses for instruction only (Audit), and will attend class but will not receive credit. Audit students will pay the same fees and enjoy the same instructional privileges as students enrolled for credit. Audit students may participate in class, take examinations or complete other assignments, but are not required to do so.
Students may not petition to change their enrollment status from, or to, “Audit” after the Add/Drop period has ended.
Details on the audit process are covered in the Registration & Enrollment chapter.
Undergraduate Probation & Disqualification Policy
The following policies govern undergraduate academic probation and disqualification:
According to Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, you must achieve at least a 2.00 grade point average (GPA) in all university work, all work at Cal State East Bay, and all work in your major to receive a baccalaureate degree. Academic probation warns you that your academic performance is below the state minimum required for graduation, and that you must improve your GPA before a degree can be granted.
There are various services to assist you in improving your academic standing. If you are an EXCEL or Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) student, you must contact your counselor. All other undergraduate students should contact the Academic Advising and Career Education office at 510-885-3621 and make an appointment to meet with an academic advisor.
When both your cumulative higher education GPA and your Cal State East Bay GPA reach 2.00, you are removed from academic probation.
As authorized by Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, you may be placed on administrative academic probation for:
- withdrawal or administrative disenrollment from all or a substantial portion of a program of studies in two successive quarters or in any three quarters. (Note: A student whose withdrawal is directly associated with a chronic or recurring medical condition or its treatment is not subject to administrative academic probation for such withdrawal);
- repeated failure to progress toward the stated degree objective or other program objective, including that resulting from the assignment of 23 units of “NC,” when such failure appears to be due to circumstances within your control;
- failure to comply, after due notice, with an academic requirement or regulation, as defined by campus policy, which is routine for all students or a defined group of students, such as failure to complete the writing skills test, failure to complete a required practicum, failure to comply with professional standards appropriate to the field of study, or failure to complete a specified number of units as a condition for receiving student financial aid or making satisfactory progress in the academic program;
- earning only grades of “F,” “NC,” and/or “WU” for two consecutive quarters or any three quarters.
As authorized by Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, as an undergraduate student on academic probation you will be subject to academic disqualification when:
- as a freshman (fewer than 45 quarter hours of college work completed) you fall below a grade point average of 1.50 in all units attempted or in all units attempted at Cal State East Bay;
- as a sophomore (45 through 89 quarter hours of college work completed) you fall below a grade point average of 1.70 in all units attempted or in all units attempted at Cal State East Bay;
- as a junior (90 through 134 quarter hours of college work completed) you fall below a grade point average of 1.85 in all units attempted or in all units attempted at Cal State East Bay;
- as a senior (135 or more quarter hours of college work completed) you fall below a grade point average of 1.95 in all units attempted or in all units attempted at Cal State East Bay.
As authorized by Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, if you have been placed on administrative academic probation, you may be disqualified from further attendance if:
- the conditions for removal of administrative academic probation are not met within the period specified;
- you become subject to academic probation while on administrative academic probation;
- you become subject to administrative academic probation for the same or similar reason for which you have been placed on administrative academic probation previously, although not currently in such status.
If you are not on probation, you may be subject to administrative academic disqualification if:
- at the end of any term, you have a cumulative grade point average below 1.0;
- your cumulative grade point average is so low that in view of your overall educational record, it seems unlikely that the deficiency will be removed within a reasonable period.
Reinstatement as an Undergraduate after Disqualification
To be readmitted or reinstated as an undergraduate student following Academic Disqualification, you must have earned good grades at another accredited institution, or through Open University, have improved your CSUEB and cumulative GPA to 2.00 or better, and have completed any required remediation. Typically, you will not be considered for readmission for one year, certainly not for at least one quarter. If you are not admitted within three quarters, you must also reapply for admission.
The Admissions Review Committee will decide on petitions for reinstatement, on a case-by-case basis, if you do not meet the above-mentioned criteria but feel you have compelling and/or extenuating circumstances which prevent you from achieving the reinstatement requirements. The committee may reinstate you on probation if, in their judgment, you are likely to remove any grade point average deficiencies within the subsequent two terms.
Note: If you are readmitted or reinstated, you must maintain a minimum term GPA of 2.5. If you are academically disqualified for a second time, you will not be readmitted or reinstated.
Standards of Research with Human Subjects
The University has approved policies and procedures for the protection of human subjects in research, development, and related activities carried out by faculty, staff and students. An Institutional Review Board has been established to review research protocols in order to determine whether human subjects would be at risk and to protect their rights and welfare. Protocols must be approved before research commences. Further information and copies of the policy document may be obtained from the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs, LI 2300, 885-4212 or online at: http://www.csueastbay.edu/orsp/